Essay On Babur


Babar Biography

Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar Biography

Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India was an excellent general and a wise ruler. He was born on 14th February 1483 and was a Chughtai Turk, descendant of king Taimur on his father's side and Chengez Khan on his mother's side. Thus conquest and efficient administration was in his blood. He succeeded to the throne of Farghana, a small state in Central Asia, when his father Umar Sheikh Mirza died. At that time he was barely eleven years old. His initial years to throne were marked by continuous wars, battles and treaties. After sometime he lost his state and has to live in exile. Few years later fate again smiled on him. His enemies fought among themselves and he converted this opportunity in his favor, and captured the kingdom of present day Afghanistan. Babar was able to re conquer his home state Farghana and Samarkand, but this happiness proved to be shortlived for him. As he was again driven out of his home by his Uzbeg enemies. He was invited to India by Rana Sanga and Daulat Khan Lodi, the Muslim Governor of Punjab, to fight against Ibrahim Lodi. After losing his empire in Central Asia, he found the invitation very lucrative, thus he invaded India. He was the first king to bring artillery to India. He met the forces of Ibrahim Lodi in the field of Panipat on 21st April 1526 and won this battle known in Indian history as the First battle of Panipat. This battle marked his conquest over Delhi. And changed the course of Indian history as well as Mughal empire forever. After this he fought another decisive battle with Rana Sanga in 1527, at Kanwaha. In this battle Rana Sanga was defeated and with this Babar became the unchallenged ruler of northern India.

Although he restrained from plundering and looting the cities of India, he conquered, he was not very religiously inclined and did not convert the people of India to Islam. His first act of commemorating victory in Agra, Uttar Pradesh was not any religious but aesthetic, a garden in Persian style, called Aram Bagh.

He had made himself the ruler of Punjab, Delhi and the Ganga plains as far as Bihar, before his death. He wrote an autobiography containing lively description of India. It is known as Tuzuk-I- Babari, and is written in Turkish. He died in 1530 and was succeeded by his son Humayun to the throne of Delhi.

Facts and Information about Babar

Full NameZahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar
Nick NameBabar
BornFebruary 23, 1483 (Andijan, Mughalistan)
DiedDecember 26, 1530 (Agra, Mughal Empire)
BurriedKabul, Afghanistan
Reign30 April 1526 - 26 December 1530
GrandfatherMiran Shah
GrandmotherQutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan
FatherUmar Shaikh Mirza II, Amir of Farghana
MotherQutlugh Nigar Khanum
WivesAisha Sultan Begum, Zaynab Sultan Begum, Masuma Sultan Begum, Maham Begum, Dildar Begum, Gulnar Aghacha, Gulrukh Begum, Mubarika Yousefzai
BrotherGenghis Khan
AboutBabar was a conqueror from Central Asia who established the Mughal dynasty in India. He was the first Mughal emperor.
BabarnamaIt is an autobiography of Babar. It was originally written in the Chagatai language.

Later in 1589 it was translated to Persian language by Abdul Rahim, a Mughal courtier.
Passion to kill peopleBabar liked to cut heads off people and create pillars out of these. He affirmed this in his autobiography also.
AscensionIn 1495 Babar became the ruler of Farghana, succeeding his father.
Siege on SamarkandIn 1501, soon after Babar had laid siege on Samarkand, Muhammad Shaybani attacked and defeated him.
Formation of Mughal EmpireIn 1519, Babar reached Chenab.

In 1524, Babar discovered that Daulat Khan Lodi was expelled by an Afghan Chief. Babar attacked the Chief and defeated him. Later he appointed Ala-ud-Din as Governor of Lahore.
First battle of PanipatOn 20 April 1526 Babar met Ibrahim Lodi on the battleground of Panipat.

The battle of Panipat began on 21 April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi's army was surrounded by Babar. Babar army opened fire and dealt huge damage. Lodi died during the battle.

The Lodi Dynasty ended with the death of Ibrahim Lodi.
DeathBabar died on January 5, 1531. He was succeeded by Humayun. His body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan.
LegacyUnder the influence of the Persian, culture Babar expanded the Persianate ethos in India.

In Uzbekistan, Babar is traeted like a national hero.

In October 2005, the Babar Cruise Missile was developed by Pakistan in his honor.
Babri mosqueIt is believed that the Rama Temple at Ayodhya was demolished by Babar. Later he built Babri Mosque at the same place.

On 6 December 1992, the Karsevaks of Ramajanmabhumi movement demolished the Babri Masjid.
MonumentsPanipat Mosque, Jama Masjid, Babri Mosque
ChildrenHumayun, son

Kamran Mirza, son

Askari Mirza, son

Hindal Mirza, son

Fakhr-un-Nissa, daughter

Gulrang Begum, daughter

Gulbadan Begum, daughter

Gulchehra Begum, daughter

Altun Bishik, alleged son

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Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526.

At the age of 14, Babur ascended the throne of the Central Asian kingdom of Farghana. His greatest ambition was to rule Samarkand. He fought many battles in the pursuit of this goal, winning and losing his kingdom many times in the process. In 1504, he ventured into what is now Afghanistan and conquered Kabul.

His position in Central Asia was precarious at best. In order to consolidate his rule, he invaded India five times, crossing the River Indus each time. The fifth expedition resulted in his encounter with Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. Babur’s army was better equipped than Lodhi’s; he had guns while the sultan relied on elephants. The most successful of Babur’s innovations was the introduction of gunpowder, which had never been used before in the Sub-continent. This combined with Babur’s newer tactics gave him a greater advantage. Babur’s strategy won the war and Ibrahim Lodhi died fighting.

Panipat was merely the beginning of the Mughal rule. Akbar laid its real foundation in 1556. At the time of the battle of Panipat, the political power in India was shared by the Afghans and the Rajputs. After Panipat, the Hindu princes united under Rana Sanga, the Raja of Mewar, resulting in a sizable force. Babur’s army showed signs of panic at the size of the huge opposing army. To prevent his forces retreat, Babur tried to instill confidence in his soldiers by breaking all his drinking cups and vessels, and vowed never to drink again if he won. His soldiers took heart, and when the armies met in the battle at Kanwaha, near Agra on March 16, 1527, Babur was able to win decisively. Kanwaha confirmed and completed Babur’s victory at Panipat. Babur thus became the king of Central India.

In 1528, he captured Chanderi from the Rajput chief Medini Rao, and a year later he defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodhi in the battle of Ghagra at Bihar. These conquests made Babur the “Master of Hindustan”. He was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his conquests as he died shortly afterwards in Agra on December 26, 1530. He was buried at Kabul in accordance with his wish.

The Mughal age is famous for its many-faceted cultural developments. The Timurids had a great cultural tradition behind them. Their ancestral kingdom at Samarkand was the meeting ground of the cultural traditions of Central and West Asia. The Mughals brought with them Muslim cultural traditions from Turko-Iranian areas, which inspired the growth of the Indo-Muslim culture.

This article was last updated on Sunday, June 01, 2003


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