Totality Of Evidence Definition Essay

1. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992;268:2420-5. [PubMed]

2. Guyatt GH. Evidence-based medicine. ACP J Club 1991;114:A-16.

3. Bordley DR, Fagan M, Theige D. Evidence-based medicine: a powerful educational tool for clerkship education. Am J Med 1997;102:427-32. [PubMed]

4. Sackett DL, Richardson WS, Rosenberg WMC, Haynes RB. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. London (UK): Churchill Livingstone; 1997.

5. McColl A, Smith H, White P, Field J. General practitioners‚ perceptions of the route to evidence based medicine: a questionnaire survey. BMJ 1998; 316:361-5. [PMC free article][PubMed]

6. Tunis SR, Hayward RS, Wilson MC, Rubin HR, Bass EB, Johnston M, et al. Internists‚ attitudes about clinical practice guidelines. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120:956-63. [PubMed]

7. McAlister FA, Graham I, Karr GW, Laupacis A. Evidence-based medicine and the practising clinician: a survey of Canadian general internists. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14:236-42. [PMC free article][PubMed]

8. Hagdrup N, Falshaw M, Gray RW, Carter Y. All members of primary care team are aware of importance of evidence based medicine. BMJ 1998;317: 282. [PMC free article][PubMed]

9. Ghali WA, Saitz R, Eskew AH, Lemaire JB, Gupta M, Hershman WY. Evidence-based medicine: behaviors, skills, and attitudes of medical students. Ann R Coll Physicians Surg Can 1998;31:177-82.

10. Olatunbosun OA, Edouard D. Pierson RA. Physicians‚ attitudes toward evidence based obstetric practice: a questionnaire survey. BMJ 1998;316:365-6. [PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Naylor CD. Grey zones of clinical practice: some limits to evidence-based medicine. Lancet 1995;345:840-2. [PubMed]

12. Miettinen OS. Evidence in medicine: invited commentary. CMAJ 1998;158 (2):215-21. Available: www.cma.ca/cmaj/vol-158/issue-2/0215.htm[PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Clarke M, Chalmers I. Discussion sections in reports of controlled trials published in general medical journals. Islands in search of continents? JAMA 1998;280:280-2. [PubMed]

14. Guyatt GH, Sinclair J, Cook DJ, Glasziou P, the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group and the Cochrane Applicability Methods Working Group. Users‚ guides to the medical literature: XVI. How to use a treatment recommendation. JAMA 1999;281:1836-43. [PubMed]

15. Chalmers I, Hetherington J, Elbourne D, Keirse MJN, Enkin M. Materials and methods used in synthesizing evidence to evaluate the effects of care during pregnancy and childbirth: provisions for updating and amending overviews (meta-analyses) in the light of new data and criticisms. In: Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJN, editors. Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 1989.

16. Moher D, Olkin I. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A concern for standards. JAMA 1995;274:1962-4. [PubMed]

17. Charlton BG. Restoring the balance: evidence-based medicine put in its place. J Eval Clin Pract 1997;3:87-98. [PubMed]

18. Yusuf S, Held P, Teo KK, Toretsky ER. Selection of patients for randomized controlled trials: implications of wide or narrow eligibility criteria. Stat Med 1990;9:73-86. [PubMed]

19. Dans AL, Dans LF, Guyatt GH, Richardson S, and the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users‚ guides to the medical literature: XIV. How to decide on the applicability of clinical trial results to your patient. JAMA 1998;279:545-9. [PubMed]

20. Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, Cook DJ, and the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users‚ guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. B. What were the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? JAMA 1994;271:59-63. [PubMed]

21. Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts DS. An assessment of the clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1728-33. [PubMed]

22. Cook RJ, Sackett DL. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ 1995;310:452-4. [PMC free article][PubMed]

23. McAlister FA, Straus SE, Guyatt GH, Haynes RB, and the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users‚ guides to the medical literature: XX. Integrating research evidence with the care of the individual patient. JAMA. 2000;283:2829-36. [PubMed]

24. Improving communication between doctors and patients. Summary and recommendations of a report of a working party of the Royal College of Physicians. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1997;31:258-9. [PubMed]

25. Eddy DM. Health system reform: Will controlling costs require rationing services? JAMA 1994;272:324-8. [PubMed]

26. Chisholm J. Viagra: botched test case for rationing. BMJ 1999;318:273-4. [PMC free article][PubMed]

27. McAlister FA, Laupacis A. Towards a better yardstick: the choice of treatment thresholds in hypertension. Can J Cardiol 1998;14:47-51. [PubMed]

28. Maynard A. Evidence-based medicine: an incomplete method for informing treatment choices. Lancet 1997:349:126-28. [PubMed]

29. Reilly B, Lemon M. Evidence-based morning report: a popular new format in a large teaching hospital. Am J Med 1997;103:419-26. [PubMed]

30. Jacobson LD, Edwards AGK, Granier SK, Butler CC. Evidence-based medicine and general practice. Br J Gen Pract 1997;47:449-52. [PMC free article][PubMed]

31. Sackett DL, Straus SE. Finding and applying evidence during clinical rounds: the ”evidence cart.” JAMA 1998;280:1336-8. [PubMed]

32. Sauve S, Lee HN, Meade MO, Lang JD, Farkouh M, Cook DJ, et al, and the General Internal Medicine Fellowship Programme of McMaster University. The critically-appraised topic (CAT): a resident-initiated tactic for applying users‚ guides at the bedside. Ann R Coll Physicians SurgCan 1995;28:396-8.

33. Miles A, Bentley P, Polychronis A, Grey J. Evidence-based medicine: Why all the fuss? This is why. J Eval Clin Pract 1997;3:83-5. [PubMed]

34. Krumholz HM, Radford MJ, Ellerbeck EF, Hennen J, Meehan TP, Petrillo M, et al. Aspirin for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: prescribed use and outcomes. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:292-8. [PubMed]

35. Krumholz HM, Radford MJ, Wang Y, Chen J, Heiat A, Marciniak TA. National use and effectiveness of beta-blockers for the treatment of elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction. National Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. JAMA 1998;280:623-9. [PubMed]

36. Wong JH, Findlay JM, Suarez-Almazor ME. Regional performance of carotid endarterectomy: appropriateness, outcomes and risk factors for complications. Stroke 1997;28:891-8. [PubMed]

37. Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Davis DA, Haynes RB, Freemantle N, Harvey EL. Audit and feedback to improve health professional practice and health care outcomes. In: The Cochrane Library; Issue 3, 1998. Oxford (UK): Update Software.

38. Horwitz RI. The dark side of evidence-based medicine. Cleve Clin J Med 1996;63:320-3. [PubMed]

39. Cohn JN. Evidence-based medicine: What is the evidence? J Cardiac Failure 1996;2:159-61. [PubMed]

40. Charlton BG, Miles A. The rise and fall of EBM. Q J Med 1998;12:371-4. [PubMed]

41. Sackett DL, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn‚t. BMJ 1996;312:71-2. [PMC free article][PubMed]

42. Grahame-Smith D. Evidence based medicine: socratic dissent. BMJ 1995;310:1126-7. [PMC free article][PubMed]

43. Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG, et al. The effects of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1001-9. [PubMed]

44. Hampton JR. Evidence-based medicine, practice variations and clinical freedom. J Eval Clin Pract 1997;3:123-31. [PubMed]

45. Ellis J, Mulligan I, Rowe, J, Sackett DL. Inpatient general medicine is evidence based. Lancet 1995;346:407-10. [PubMed]

46. Geddes JR, Game D, Jenkins NE, Peterson LA, Pottinger GR, Sackett DL. What proportion of primary psychiatric interventions are based on randomised evidence? Qual Health Care 1996;5:215-7. [PMC free article][PubMed]

47. Gill P, Dowell AC, Neal RP, Smith N Heywood P, Wilson AK. Evidence based general practice: a retrospective study of interventions in our training practice. BMJ 1996;312:819-21. [PMC free article][PubMed]

48. Kenny SE, Shankar KR, Rentala R, Lamont GL, Lloyd DA. Evidence-based surgery: interventions in a regional paediatric surgical unit. Arch Dis Child 1997;76:50-3. [PMC free article][PubMed]

49. Baraldini V, Spitz L, Pierro A. Evidence-based operation in paediatric surgery. Pediatr Surg Int 1998;13:331-5. [PubMed]

50. Howes N, Chagla L, Thorpe M, McCullough P. Surgical practice is evidence based. Br J Surg 1997;84:1220-3. [PubMed]

51. Swales JD. Evidence-based medicine and hypertension. J Hypertens 1999; 17:1511-6. [PubMed]

52. Cobb LA, Thomas GI, Dillard DH, Merendino KA, Bruce RA. An evaluation of internal mammary artery ligation by a double-blind technic. N Engl J Med 1959;260:1115-8. [PubMed]

53. Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. The EC/IC Bypass Study Group. N Engl J Med 1985; 313:1191-1200. [PubMed]

54. Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, et al. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N Engl J Med 1991;324:781-8. [PubMed]

55. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Becker L. Clinical jazz: harmonizing clinical experience and evidence-based medicine. J Fam Pract 1998;47:425-8. [PubMed]

California State University, Dominguez Hills
University of Wisconsin, Parkside
Latest update: January 16, 1999
Faculty on the Site.



TOTALITY OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES

The law operates with two major substantive standards:

"Bright line" and "Totality of the circumstances"

A totality of the circumstances standard suggests that there is no single deciding factor, that one must consider all the facts, the context, and conclude from the whole picture whether there is probable cause, or whether an alleged detention is really a detention, or whether a citizen acted under color of law. The primary guide for this kind of substantive rule is the fact patterns from cases in which the courts have found that the criteria were met.

A bright line rule, on the other hand, gives specific guidelines. Any unwanted, non-accidental touching of the person of another constitutes a battery. That's it. Police may not enter property on which they do not have a right to be without a warrant or other special legal justification. They enter. Violation. The line is clear cut.

Why not make all our laws bright line and avoid the problems of trying to decide these complex contextual issues? Because human experience is infinitely varied, and we cannot write adequate laws to cover all possible circumstances. Also, we need our police to have some discretion in enforcing the law. If they were completely hemmed in by bright line rules, they would be unable to act when we need them. But in giving them discretion, we risk abuse of discretion. That is an eternal problem of humankind. As the crime rate rises, we give police more discretion. As police excesses grow in a time of relative low crime, we take away discretion and give more bright line rules.

Probable cause and reasonable cause are judged by a totality of the circumstances standard. That means you have to take all the facts into consideration and weigh them. There is no single definition of what gives probable or reasonable cause. Why? So police will have the necessary flexibility to meet the myriad different situations that occur.



0 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *