Bahay Na Bato
...THE SPANISH COLONIAL TRADITION From 1565 to 1898 the Philippines was a colony of Spain. During this long period, Spanish-influenced architecture appeared, namely, the iglesia or simbahan (church) and its adjoining campanario (bell tower) and convento (residence of the parish priest), the escuela (school), the fuerza or fortaleza (fortification), the civic buildings like the casa real and tribunal, the farola (lighthouses), the bahay na bato (dwellings of wood and stone), and the puente (stone bridges). It is generally acknowledged that the Philippines is the bastion of Christianity in the Orient. Some scholars believe that, because of this, the country absorbed the greatest degree of influence from the west in the Asian region, losing much of its identity in the process. Other scholars believe, however, that all these influences were really assimilated by the older ethnic base, which actually indigenized them. It is pointed out, for example, that the Spanish word for church, iglesia, never became fully accepted among the Filipinos, who used their own terms to denote a place of worship. Thus the Tagalog and Cebuano use simbahan, the Ilocano, simbaan, and the Pampango, pisamban. This process of indigenization was to characterize much of Filipino construction during the more than three centuries of Spanish colonization. The Beginnings The history of Philippine architecture under the Spanish regime begins with the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi’s expedition in 1565. In......
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...MIDear Tutor Phil It was my good fortune that I came across your site. I am from a small town in Punjab, India and train students for the IELTS test as a hobby. Basically, i am a gynaecologist by profession. I’ve found all the posts on your site very very helpful. As i don’t know much myself, i look forward to help from people like you to pass it further. Please help me with this essay In many countries, good schools and medical facilities are available only in cities. Some people think new teachers and doctors should work in rural areas for a few years, but others think everyone should be free to choose where they work. Discuss and give your own opinion. ear tutor Phil Here is my essay which I have tried to make according to your guidelines. Please edit and polish it. Thanks a lot for your help. Kiran As a big gap is there between the urban and rural areas, some people opine that teachers and doctors who are fresh out of college should work in villages for a few years. However, others believe that the choice of where to work should be left on the teachers and doctors. In this essay I shall discuss the merits and demerits of both approaches and finally give my opinion. There are many advantages of having teachers and doctors work in rural areas. Firstly, the people in the villages will have access to medical care and education which they are deprived of normally. Secondly, it would be good for the teachers and doctors who are fresh from university to translate......
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Nas for Organization
...Network-attached storage (NAS) for a small company. This study was commissioned by Design Foundation Finland, aiming to improve the security and the management of the information. This research will be aiming to find the proper way to design and implement a network storage, which will be used as the main data storage within the company for creating an ideal solution for data maintenance, security and ease of access to all the data of the foundation. The outcome of the thesis is a solution, which is created from scratch, offering a design and implementation of an NAS in a small company with a relatively small budget. The case foundation is located in Lahti. The foundation was established in 2009, aimed to improve and support the education (of design), as well as research and development of design. Design Foundation Finland also has an own R&D group to improve the design of Finnish products in several industrial fields. The method used in this study is qualitative, based on the author’s own observation within the subject, interviews among the employees of the Design Foundation Finland and it is done by utilizing Design Science research methodology to develop an artifact. The study result offers a solution to implement and utilize an NAS device in a small company without huge investments on equipment. The study result can be applied to create an NAS for a small company or it can be used as a basis to create an NAS for relatively big companies. Keywords: NAS, Backup, Security,......
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...Nafees Bost Professor Jordan-smith English 112 15 April 2013 Nasty Nas Quite possibly the only man to indirectly steal my attention with sheer words alone, such a man would have to be non-other than Nas, or Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones. Born the son of jazz musician Olu Dara, Nas dropped out of school in the eighth grade, trading classrooms for the streets of the rough Queensbridge projects, long fabled as the former stomping ground of Marley Marl and his Juice Crew as immortalized in "The Bridge." Despite having dropped out of school in the eighth grade, Nas developed a high degree of literacy that would later characterize his rhymes. At the same time, though, he delved into street culture and flirted with danger, such experiences similarly characterizing his rhymes. His synthesis of well-crafted rhetoric and street-glamorous imagery blossomed in 1991 when he connected with Main Source and laid down a fiery verse on "Live at the Barbeque" in which earned him instant respect among the East Coast rap scene. Not long afterward, MC Serch of 3rd Bass approached Nas about contributing a track to the Zebrahead soundtrack. Serch had been the soundtrack's executive producer and, like much of New York, had been impressed by "Live at the Barbeque." Nas then submitted "Halftime," and the song had impressed Serch enough for him to make it the soundtrack's leadoff track. Columbia Records meanwhile signed Nas to a major-label contract, and many of New York's finest producers......
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...The Republic By Plato Translated by Benjamin Jowett ---------------------------------------------------------------------- THE INTRODUCTION The Republic of Plato is the longest of his works with the exception of the Laws, and is certainly the greatest of them. There are nearer approaches to modern metaphysics in the Philebus and in the Sophist; the Politicus or Statesman is more ideal; the form and institutions of the State are more clearly drawn out in the Laws; as works of art, the Symposium and the Protagoras are of higher excellence. But no other Dialogue of Plato has the same largeness of view and the same perfection of style; no other shows an equal knowledge of the world, or contains more of those thoughts which are new as well as old, and not of one age only but of all. Nowhere in Plato is there a deeper irony or a greater wealth of humor or imagery, or more dramatic power. Nor in any other of his writings is the attempt made to interweave life and speculation, or to connect politics with philosophy. The Republic is the centre around which the other Dialogues may be grouped; here philosophy reaches the highest point to which ancient thinkers ever attained. Plato among the Greeks, like Bacon among the moderns, was the first who conceived a method of knowledge, although neither of them always distinguished the bare outline or form from the substance of truth; and both of them had to be content with an abstraction of science which was not......
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...dialectic, in which he will eventually give up the images and unproven assumptions of mathematics and proceed entirely on the faculty of abstract thought which he has honed. Plato puts little stock in human senses. The true philosopher must be trained to ignore his senses in his search for truth. He must rely on thought alone. The true philosopher probably makes no use of empirical investigation—that is, he does not observe the world in order to find truths. Plato is at odds with the typical scientific approach to knowledge, in which observation is the most important ingredient. Plato is also at odds with his most famous student, Aristotle, who himself was the first known proponent of the observational method of scientific investigation. Republic By Plato Summary and Analysis Book VII: Section I Summary Having presented us with the Analogy of the Sun and the Analogy of the Line, Socrates now in the conversation introduces the Allegory of the Cave. Socrates is here still trying to clarify the four levels of intellect, the two levels of belief, and the two levels of knowledge. For this allegory, we are to imagine an underground Cave, whose entrance/exit leads upward to daylight. There are prisoners in the Cave who have been chained there since their childhood; they are chained to the ground and chained by their heads. They can see only the wall of the Cave in front of them. A fire is burning behind the prisoners; between the fire and the arrested prisoners, there is a......
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...Republic of the Philippines NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION Napolcom Bldg., Diosdado Macapagal Government Centers, Maimpis, City of San Fernando, Pampanga Region 3 Dear MA. BERNADETTE ANGELES 524 Rizal st. San jose BALIUAG,BULACAN This is your schedule confirmation. Please print out this page and present it at the NAPOLCOM Regional Office where you are applying. Your appointment details are as follows: Exam Title | : | PNP Entrance Exam | Schedule | : | 09/23/2013 | Reference No. | : | 0913-03-03697 | Place of processing | : | Napolcom Regional Office No. 3, Maimpis, City of San Fernando, Pampanga | Please make sure you come to the NAPOLCOM Regional Office/place of processing on your appointment date and bring the following requirements/documents (original & photocopy): 1. Application Form (NAPOLCOM Form 1-A) duly accomplished by the applicant and two (2) recent and identical 1 in. x 1 in. color ID pictures (with white background) and complete name tag (indicate rank before the first, middle and last names). 2. Police Examination Fee: Four Hundred Pesos (Php 400.00) 3. One (1) legal-size window envelope with nine pesos (Php 9.00) worth of mailing stamps (for NCR, CAR, Regions 1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B & 5) and twelve pesos (Php 12.00) worth of mailing stamps (Visayas & Mindanao, Batanes, Occidental Mindoro & Palawan) 4. Transcript of Scholastic Records (with Special Order issued by CHED) or Diploma from......
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... The situation of this scenario is that an American of Czech Steve Kafka is a business- man and a franchise owner of Chicago Style Pizza; he has decided to expand his business into his own country Czech Republic. Steve’s thought is that it may be a risky situation, but he is willing to take a chance on success or failure. However, he has already had to overcome many difficulties as a franchisor. At this time Steve mainly knows that he will face some difficult times just because he is trying to move his business to Prague to expand the business but realizes in today’s economy to survive he has to expand. Although Steve was born in the United States his family and associates live in the Czech Republic also Steve speaks the language fluently because of this he has visited the country many times and understands what and where he has to establish his structure. In other words he has a good idea on what needs to be done to make this project a success or at least he thinks he does. Nevertheless, Steve through it has decided to open and expand to the Republic despite the situations that may cause issues. An important thought of mind should be Steve understanding the Czech Republic Cuisine this process will help him for a possible successful outcome. In the past Czech Republic has been known for their beautiful cakes and popular pastries, well known throughout Central Europe. Within most of the country Czech cuisine is strongly known for the popular meats dishes such as pork,......
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...PAD 700 Prof A. Blazina Chapter 2 Homework Sept 15, 2009 Republic is a form of government where a boss or someone high up resides in the people who elect agents to represent the people in decision making; Ex: The United States is republic because of how the gov’t is chosen starting from the congress, president, and then broken up into judicial and legislative branches. In this case the people would be the boss because their ones that elect the agents (gov’t) to represent us for social, economic, and political decisions. Representative Democracy is a group of citizens that establish a relationship between them and the gov’t. In today’s society the U.S. structure is broken up into a Hierocracy that allows congress to oversee all the parties, administrators, and president, etc... If you think about history and going back to the slavery policy was that blacks didn’t have any freedom. The regulators were the slave owners who had to make sure that was implemented and put into play. Policy sets orders and direction for someone or something to gain power. Policy must have administrative structure because of the different decision making and implantation set for various depts. in various complex organizations. Without order or policy settings for any organization there wouldn’t be any progress. Now and days if you look from the bottom street bureaucrats like police officers cannot fire their guns just because there are certain guidelines and steps that they have to follow......
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Republic of Biak Na Bato
...established the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Both sides soon came to realize that the struggle between Spain and the new Republic had reached an impasse. The rebels could not meet the Spanish regulars in the field but neither could the Spanish put down the guerrillas. Negotiations began in August and concluded in December with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. The agreement extended a general amnesty to the rebels with a payment of US$800,000 for Aguinaldo and his government to retire in voluntary exile to Hong Kong. Aguinaldo left the Philippines with his government on December 27, 1897. While in Hong Kong, Aguinaldo and his compatriots designed what is today the Philippine national flag. Spanish-American War / War of Philippine Independence 1898 - 1901 Relations between the United States and Spain deteriorated over the conduct of the war for independence in Cuba. On February 15, 1898 the American battleship, USS Maine, exploded and sank in Havana harbour under mysterious circumstances with the loss of 260 men. As war between the United States and Spain became imminent, the commander of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron, Commodore George Dewey, had discussions with Emilio Aguinaldo's government in exile in Singapore and Hong Kong. ------------------------------------------------- Biak-na-Bato Main article: Pact of Biak-na-Bato Spanish pressure intensified, eventually forcing Aguinaldo's forces to retreat to the mountains. Emilio Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.......
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...10 Cyber World CONSULTANT Merle C. Tan, Ph.D. DIWA OFFICERS EDITORIAL BOARD Saturnino G. Belen Jr. President 16 Investigatory Projects Lourdes F. Lozano Executive Editor Amada J. Javellana Executive Vice President 14 Earth Care William S. Fernando Managing Editor Enrique A. Caballero,Reynaldo M. de la Cruz, Alvin Fl. Julian Magazine Editor 19 Pseudoscience Carlo F. De Leon,William S. Fernando, Virgie B. Naigan Art Director 23 More Activities To Do Jose Maria T. Policarpio, Elma L. Ropeta, SilvanoC. Santiago Cover Design Lourdes F. Lozano Vice Presidents 24 Mind Games Jose Valeriano P. Linay Layout Design Jun Mediavillo Illustrator BATO BALANI® for Science and Technology is published bimonthly by Diwa Scholastic Press, Inc. Bato Balani is one of Diwa’s Scholastics Enhancement Materials (SEM®). The SEM® trademark refers to a new genre of scholastic publication, comprising a selection of premium - quality magazines for greater learning. All rights reserved. All articles in this publication may be reprinted provided due acknowledgement is given. All communications should be addressed to THE PRODUCT MANAGER, G/F Star Centrum, Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City,Philippines, Telephone numbers 843-4761 to 66. 2 JUNIOR Antibodies May Predict Diabetes W ASHINGTON - Antibodies that and colleagues at the University of Colorado attack insulin-producing or viruses, to be attacked. Health Sciences......
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...History of Central African Republic: The Central African Republic (CAR) is located in the heart of equatorial Africa. The country, with an estimated population of 4.4 million and a landmass of 622,984 sq km , is landlocked, sharing borders with Chad, Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Republic of the Congo, and Cameroon. The country, a former colony of France (formerly known as Ubangi-Shari), gained independence on August 13, 1960. Like most former colonies, CAR was subject to interference in domestic affairs by its former colonizer. The French were linked to the death of Barthélémy Boganda, the country’s pre-independence leader . The French were also directly involved in several coups within the CAR. Following the death of Boganda, David Dacko a former Boganda aide, would go on to become the country’s first President (with assistance from France). During his first term as president, Dacko significantly increased the country’s diamond production, and even had a diamond cutting facility built in the country’s capital city of Bangui. As a result, diamonds became the co... ... middle of paper ... ... documents, administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control, terminal handling charges and inland transport. The cost measure does not include tariffs or duties. Based on the Bank’s data the cost for importing one 20-foot container into the CAR is $ 5,554, and the cost for exporting, $5,491. Compared to the Sub-Saharan average of $2,365 and......
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...The Republic Plato (Translator: Benjamin Jowett) Published: -380 Categorie(s): Non-Fiction, Human Science, Philosophy Source: Gutenberg.org 1 About Plato: Plato (Greek: Plátōn, "wide, broad-shouldered") (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the second of the great trio of ancient Greeks –Socrates, Plato, originally named Aristocles, and Aristotle– who between them laid the philosophical foundations of Western culture. Plato was also a mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the western world. Plato is widely believed to have been a student of Socrates and to have been deeply influenced by his teacher's unjust death. Plato's brilliance as a writer and thinker can be witnessed by reading his Socratic dialogues. Some of the dialogues, letters, and other works that are ascribed to him are considered spurious. Plato is thought to have lectured at the Academy, although the pedagogical function of his dialogues, if any, is not known with certainty. They have historically been used to teach philosophy, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and other subjects about which he wrote. Source: Wikipedia Also • • • • • • • • • • available on Feedbooks for Plato: The Complete Plato (-347) Apology (-400) Symposium (-400) Charmides (-400) Protagoras (-400) Statesman (-400) Ion (-400) Meno (-400) Crito (-400) Laches (-400) Note: This......
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Hunyango Sa Bato
...SUBJECT: “Hunyango sa Bato” by Abdon Balde Jr. DATE : April 12, 2008 Summary: The story evolves in the life of a civil engineer and his experiences in the field of construction. He narrates how contractors and engineers from the private and government sectors transact business deals, more often than not, feeding their personal motives. He even enumerates ways on how to delight influential decision makers for future projects. He describes in detail how the sport of golf can get someone connections (even if personal pride is sacrificed) in the government. He further narrates that greed was the cause of some local disasters in the construction business like the Ruby Tower collapse, copper mining disaster and the Film Center accident. After failing to win bids in Malaysia and Indonesia, the young engineer went back home to the Philippines to join local biddings. Due to financial restraints, he teamed up with a Japanese contractor to go against other local and international bidders. As suggested by a congressman, there was a proposal to connive with the other bidding corporations, but the deal was exposed in the media. According to reports, there was a conspiracy going on among the bidders and the congressman. Distrust, greed and the insatiable desire for money then plays into action. As the story progresses, he discloses that he was responsible for the media leak and all of the collusion was a part of his ploy for his personal benefit. The story......
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Biak Na Bato
...Biak-na-Bato Republic Biak-na-Bato Republic is one of the forms of de facto government that were established in the Philippines during the Spanish period. The Biak-na-Bato Republic was founded by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on the 1st of November in the year 1897. The republic only takes effect for two years. However, the Republic of Biak-na-Bato declared the separation of the Philippine Islands from the mother country Spain. Emilio Aguinaldo established his headquarters in Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan province. The news immediately spread throughout the country, and the revolutionaries were once more in high spirits. General llanera, who was in Nueva Ecija, declared his support for Aguinaldo. In July 1897, Aguinaldo established the Biak-na-Bato Republic and issued a proclamation stating the following demands: ▪ Expulsion of the friars and the return of the friar lands to the Filipinos ▪ Representation of the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes ▪ Freedom of the press and of religion ▪ Abolition of the government’s power to banish Filipinos ▪ Equality for all before the law. A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. It was signed on November 1, 1897. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution provided for the establishment of a Supreme council that would serve as the highest governing body of the Republic. It also outlined certain basic human rights, such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and the right to education.......
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The Republic of Biak-na-Bato (Tagalog: Republika ng Biak-na-Bato, Spanish: República de Biac-na-Bató), officially referred to in its constitution as the Republic of the Philippines (Tagalog: Republika ng Pilipinas, Spanish: República de Filipinas), was the first republic ever declared in the Philippines by revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries. Despite its successes, including the establishment of the Philippines' first ever constitution, the republic lasted just over a month. It was disestablished by a peace treaty signed by Aguinaldo and the SpanishGovernor-General, Fernando Primo de Rivera which included provision for exile of Aguinaldo and key associates to Hong Kong.
The Republic of Biak-na-Bato was one of a number of unrecognizedinsurgentpolities which existed during the time in which the Philippines was under Spanish colonial government as the Spanish East Indies. It was preceded and succeeded by two similarly unrecognized polities, the Tejeros government and the Central Executive Committee.
The constitution of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato was written by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho, who copied the Cuban Constitution of Jimaguayú nearly word-for-word. It provided for the creation of a Supreme Council, which was created on November 2, 1897, with the following as officers having been elected:
|Secretary of Foreign Affairs||Antonio Montenegro|
|Secretary of War||Emiliano Riego de Dios|
|Secretary of the Interior||Isabelo Artacho|
|Secretary of the Treasury||Baldomero Aguinaldo|
The initial concept of the republic began during the latter part of the Philippine revolution, when the leader of the Katipunan, Emilio Aguinaldo, became surrounded by Spanish forces at his headquarters in Talisay, Batangas. Aguinaldo slipped through the Spanish cordon and, with 500 picked men, proceeded to Biak-na-Bató, a wilderness area at the town of San Miguel, Bulacan (now parts of San Miguel, San Ildefonso and Doña Remedios in Bulacan). When news of Aguinaldo's arrival there reached the towns of central Luzon, men from the Ilocos provinces, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Zambales renewed their armed resistance against the Spanish.
Unable to persuade the revolutionaries to give up their arms, Governor-GeneralPrimo de Rivera issued a decree on July 2, 1897, which prohibited inhabitants from leaving their villages and towns. Contrary to his expectations, they continued fighting. Within days, Aguinaldo and his men planned the establishment of a Republic. Aguinaldo issued a proclamation from his hideout in Biak-na-Bato entitled "To the Brave Sons of the Philippines", in which he listed his revolutionary demands as:
- the expulsion of the Friars and the return to the Filipinos of the lands which they had appropriated for themselves;
- representation in the Spanish Cortes;
- freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects;
- equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular civil servants;
- abolition of the power of the government to banish civil citizens;
- legal equality of all persons.
On November 1, 1897, the provisional constitution for the Biak-na-Bato Republic was signed. The preamble of the constitution included the statement that
The separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and their formation into an independent state with its own government called the Philippine Republic has been the end sought by the Revolution in the existing war, begun on the 24th of August, 1896; and therefore, in its name and by the power delegated by the Filipino people, interpreting faithfully their desires and ambitions, we, the representatives of the Revolution, in a meeting at Biac-na-bato, Nov. 1st. 1897, unanimously adopt the following articles for the Constitution of the State.
By the end of 1897, Governor-General Primo de Rivera accepted the impossibility of quelling the revolution by force of arms. In a statement to the Cortes Generales, he said, "I can take Biak-na-Bato, any military man can take it, but I can not answer that I could crush the rebellion." Desiring to make peace with Aguinaldo, he sent emissaries to Aguinaldo seeking a peaceful settlement. Ironically, nothing was accomplished until Pedro A. Paterno, a known turncoat and a lawyer from Manila volunteered to act as negotiator.
On August 9, 1897, Paterno proposed a peace based on reforms and amnesty to Aguinaldo. In succeeding months, practicing shuttle diplomacy, Paterno traveled back and forth between Manila and Biak-na-Bato carrying proposals and counterproposals. Paterno's efforts led to a peace agreement called the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. This consisted of three documents, the first two being signed on December 14, 1897, and the third being signed on December 15; effectively ending the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
In 1899, Aguinaldo wrote in retrospect that the principal conditions of the pact were:
(1) That I would, and any of my associates who desired to go with me, be free to live in any foreign country. Having fixed upon Hongkong as my place of residence, it was agreed that payment of the indemnity of $800,000 (Mexican) should be made in three installments, namely, $400,000 when all the arms in Biak-na-Bató were delivered to the Spanish authorities; $200,000 when the arms surrendered amounted to eight hundred stand; the final payment to be made when one thousand stand of arms shall have been handed over to the authorities and the Te Deum sung in the Cathedral in Manila as thanksgiving for the restoration of peace. The latter part of February was fixed as the limit of time wherein the surrender of arms should be completed.
(2) The whole of the money was to be paid to me personally, leaving the disposal of the money to my discretion and knowledge of the understanding with my associates and other insurgents.
(3) Prior to evacuating Biak-na-Bató the remainder of the insurgent forces under Captain-General Primo de Rivera should send to Biak-na-Bató two General of the Spanish Army to be held as hostages by my associates who remained there until I and a few of my compatriots arrived in Hongkong and the first installment of the money payment (namely, four hundred thousand dollars) was paid to me.
(4) It was also agreed that the religious corporations in the Philippines be expelled and an autonomous system of government, political and administrative, be established, though by special request of General Primo de Rivera these conditions were not insisted on in the drawing up of the Treaty, the General contending that such concessions would subject the Government to severe criticism and even ridicule.
The Mother of Biak-na-Bato
Trinidad Tecson: Katipunan of San Miguel, Bulacan.
Emilio Aguinaldo Cave at the Park (site of his chair made of stone and hide out)
Aguinaldo Mural - Constitution of Biak-na-Bato (1897)
Aguinaldo passed the Hanging Bridge
Memorial (Aguinaldo/Katipuneros used the Panday for their weapons, arms)
Facade of the Monument, Memorial-Marker of the Pact
NHI Marker, 1973 Biak-na-Bato Memorial
Mural of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato (Casa Real Museum, Malolos City
On November 16, 1937, a 2,117 hectares (8.17 sq mi) block in the Biak-na-Bato area was declared a national park by Manuel L. Quezon in honor of the Republic. In the 1970s, Ferdinand Marcos issued orders guiding mineral prospecting and exploitation in government reservation which impacted the park boundaries. On April 11, 1989, Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 401, which re-defined the boundaries of the Biak-na-Bato National Park. The proclamation set aside 952 hectares (3.68 sq mi) hectares as mineral reservation, 938 hectares (3.62 sq mi) hectares as watershed reservation and 480 hectares (1.9 sq mi) hectares as forest reserve.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) , History of the Filipino People (8th ed.), Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, ISBN 971-8711-06-6
- Aguinaldo, Emilio (1899), "True Version of the Philippine Revolution", Authorama Public Domain Books
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4
- ^Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (23 September 1899), "Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató", True Version of the Philippine Revolution, Authorama: Public Domain Books, retrieved 23 September 2008
- ^Ogonsotto, Rebecca Ramilo; Ogonsotto, Reena R. Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 139. ISBN 978-971-23-3449-8.
- ^Agoncillo 1990, pp. 183–184
- ^"1897 Biac-na-Bato Constitution". [The Corpus Juris. November 1, 1897.
- ^ abAgoncillo 1990, p. 182
- ^Biak na Bato, Newsflash.org.
- ^Agoncillo 1990, pp. 182–183
- ^Agoncillo 1990, p. 183
- ^Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Wikisource.
- ^Zaide 1994, p. 252
- ^ abAguinaldo 1899Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató
- ^ abCarmela Reyes, Bulaceños want Biak-na-Bato declared a protected area (26 August 2007), Philippine Daily Inquirer.