Ulva Lactuca Descriptive Essay

Ulva lactuca, also known by the common name sea lettuce, is an edible green alga in the family Ulvaceae. It is the type species of the genusUlva.

Description[edit]

Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green algae growing from a discoid holdfast. The margin is somewhat ruffled and often torn. It may reach 18 centimetres (7.1 in) or more in length, though generally much less, and up to 30 centimetres (12 in) across.[1] The membrane is two cells thick, soft and translucent, and grows attached, without a stipe, to rocks or other algae by a small disc-shaped holdfast.[2]

Green to dark green in colour, this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged, as seen in cross-section. The chloroplast is cup-shaped in some references but as a parietal plate in others[2] with one to three pyrenoids. There are other species of Ulva which are similar and not always easy to differentiate

Distribution[edit]

The distribution is worldwide: Europe, North America (west and east coasts), Central America, Caribbean Islands, South America, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, South-west Asia, China, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand.[2][3]

Ecology[edit]

Ulva lactuca is very common on rocks and on other algae in the littoral and sublittoral on shores all around the British Isles,[4] the coast of France,[5] the Low Countries[5] and up to Denmark.[6] It is particularly prolific in areas where nutrients are abundant.[7] This has been the case off the coast of Brittany where a high level of nitrates, from the intensive farming there, washes out to sea.[8][9] The result is that large quantities of Ulva lactuca are washed up on beaches, where their decay produces methane, hydrogen sulfide, and other gases.[8][10]

Certain environmental conditions can lead to the algae spreading over large areas. In August 2009, unprecedented levels of the algae washed up on the beaches of Brittany, France,[11][12] causing a major public health scare as it decomposed. The rotting thalli produced large quantities of hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas which, like hydrogen cyanide, inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, inhibiting cellular respiration and resulting in critical cellular hypoxia. In one incident near Saint-Michel-en-Grève, a horse rider lost consciousness and his horse died after breathing the seaweed fumes. Environmentalists blamed the phenomenon on excessive use of fertilizers and the excretion of nitrates by pig and poultry farmers.[11] In an earlier separate incident at the same beach in July 2009, a truck driver had died near his vehicle after hauling three truckloads of sea lettuce without protective gear during the annual cleanup. Although initially recorded as a heart attack, the death of the horse prompted French authorities to exhume his remains for an autopsy. It was later determined to be cardiac arrest resulting from pulmonary edema, which is an indication of possible hydrogen sulfide poisoning.[9][13] Dead animals found on the algae-clogged beaches (including thirty-one wild boars in July 2011) were also claimed to be linked to toxic fumes by environmentalists.[14][15]

Life history[edit]

The sporangial and gametangial thalli are morphologically alike. The diploid adult plant produces haploidzoospores by meiosis, these settle and grow to form haploid male and female plants similar to the diploid plants. When these haploid plants release gametes they unite to produce the zygote which germinates, and grows to produce the diploid plant.[16][17][18]

Uses[edit]

U. lactuca is locally used in Scotland in soups and salads.[19][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Ulva lactuca". Gettysburg College. Retrieved December 28, 2007. 
  2. ^ abcBurrows, E.M. (1991). "Seaweeds of the British Isles". 2. London: Natural History Museum. ISBN 0-565-00981-8. 
  3. ^"Ulva lactuca Linnaeus". AlgaeBase. 
  4. ^Hardy, F.G.; Guiry, M.D. (2006). "A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland". London: British Phycological Society. ISBN 3-906166-35-X. 
  5. ^ ab"Tisbe taxon details: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753". Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). 
  6. ^Geertz-Hansen, O.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Hansen, D. F.; Christiansen, A. (September 1993). "Growth and grazing control of abundance of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca L. in a eutrophic Danish estuary". Aquatic Botany. 46 (2): 101–109. 
  7. ^Michael Guiry. "Overview of Ulva lactuca ecology". The Seaweed Site. Retrieved December 28, 2007. 
  8. ^ abHirst, Michael (August 11, 2009). "Toxic seaweed clogs French coast". BBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2009. 
  9. ^ ab"Seaweed suspected in French death". BBC News. September 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  10. ^Nedergaard, Rasmus I.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Finster, Kai (August 17, 2002). "The importance of sulfate reduction associated with Ulva lactuca thalli during decomposition: a mesocosm experiment". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 275 (1): 15–29. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00211-3. 
  11. ^ abHirst, Michael (2009-08-11). "Toxic seaweed clogs French coast". BBC. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  12. ^Samuel, Henry (2009-08-11). "Almost 100 places in Brittany have toxic seaweed". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  13. ^Lymbery, Philip (2014). Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 179. ISBN 9781408846421. 
  14. ^Chrisafis, Angelique. "Brittany beaches hit by toxic algae". The Guardian (27 July 2011). Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  15. ^McKenna, Maryn (26 July 2011). "Attack of the Deadly Slime: Farm Effluent Ruins French Beaches". Wired. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  16. ^Abbott, I.A. & Hollenberg, G.J. (1976). "Marine Algae of California.". California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0867-3. 
  17. ^Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. (2003). "Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast.". Monterey, California: Sea Challengers. ISBN 0-930118-29-4. 
  18. ^""Plant Science 4 U". Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
  19. ^Indergaad, M and Minsaas, J. 1991 in Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0 471 92947 6
  20. ^"Ulva Recipes". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Retrieved December 28, 2007. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hayden, H.S., Blomster, J., Maggs, C.A., Silva, P.C., Stanhope, M.J. and Waaland, J.R. (2003) "Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera"European Journal of Phycology 38: pp. 277–294, doi:10.1080/1364253031000136321

External links[edit]

Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonasspecies to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants and animals. In addition to their ecological roles as oxygen producers and as the food base for almost all aquatic life, algae are economically important as a source of crude oil and as sources of food and a number of pharmaceutical and industrial products for humans. The taxonomy of algae is contentious and subject to rapid change as new molecular information is discovered. The study of algae is called phycology, and a person who studies algae is a phycologist.

In this article the algae are defined as eukaryotic (nucleus-bearing) organisms that photosynthesize but lack the specialized multicellular reproductive structures of plants, which always contain fertile gamete-producing cells surrounded by sterile cells. Algae also lack true roots, stems, and leaves—features they share with the avascular lower plants (e.g., mosses, liverworts, and hornworts). Additionally, the algae as treated in this article exclude the prokaryotic (nucleus-lacking) blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).

Beginning in the 1830s, algae were classified into major groups based on colour—e.g., red, brown, and green. The colours are a reflection of different chloroplast pigments, such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins. Many more than three groups of pigments are recognized, and each class of algae shares a common set of pigment types distinct from those of all other groups.

The algae are not closely related in an evolutionary sense, and the phylogeny of the group remains to be delineated. Specific groups of algae share features with protozoa and fungi that, without the presence of chloroplasts and photosynthesis as delimiting features, make them difficult to distinguish from those organisms. Indeed, some algae appear to have a closer evolutionary relationship with the protozoa or fungi than they do with other algae.

This article discusses the algae in terms of their morphology, ecology, and evolutionary features. For a discussion of the related protists, see the articles protozoan and protist. For a more complete discussion of photosynthesis, see the articles photosynthesis and plant.

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